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Amish Acres

Anabaptism: The most radical wing of the Reformation, choosing adult baptism to seek the truth. "It is the spiritual soil out of which all nonconformist sects have sprung." Professor Walter Kohler of Heidelbergy wrote, "The Anabaptists may claim a place in world history as the pioneers of the modern world view with its freedom of faith and conscience."

Amish: Religious sect founded by Jacob Ammann, Erlenbach, Switzerland, 1693. Religiously oriented in their world outlook. It exists today as a rural subculture within the modern state, exhibiting distinctiveness, smallness, homogeneity and all-providing self-sufficiency.

Ammann, Jacob: Swiss Brethren.

Broom Corn: A grass having flower clusters with stiff, branching stalks that are used to make brooms and brushes.

Grebel, Conrad: Performed the first adult baptism of the Anabaptist movement of the Reformation.

Kuhns, Manasses: Son-in-law of Noah Nissley (father-in-law) of Moses Stahly. Last Amish patriarch to live on Amish Acres farm.

Luther, Martin: (1483-1546) German monk and Protestant religious reformer.

Patriarch: Father figure.

Matriarch: Mother dominated family or society.

Kuhns, Albert: Son of Manasses Kuhns, ( 19XX). Primary historic consultant for the restoration of Amish Acres.

National Trust for Historic Preservation: Register maintained by the United States Department of the Interior of buildings across the country that qualify for inclusion because of rigid historic requirements. Amish Acres is the only Old order Amish farm in the nation on the register.

Kuhns, Noah:Son of Albert Kuhns, school teacher and farmer.

Nissley, Noah: Father-in-law of Moses Stahly, pioneer of Amish Acres.

Penn, William: Founder of the Pennsylvania Colony.

Prairie Farmer: Farm newspaper distributed across the Midwest, published in Chicago. A photo of Amish Acres farm appeared in a "name that farm" contest in the 1930's.

Stahly, Barbara: Widow and five sons who emigrated from Kaiserslautern to America, becoming the first Amish settlers in Indiana.

Thomas, Chauncy: Owner and operator of Chauncy Thomas Blacksmith Shop that was moved intact to Amish Acres by Tater Losee. The junk pile next to the shop was moved with the shop.

Walnut Street House: An early house built in Nappanee to house nonagricultural families, that was later moved to Amish Acres.

Market Street House: Moved to Amish Acres from Nappanee and converted to actors housing for the Round Barn Theatre.

Flail: Long handled wooded tool used to beat the free swing head against shocks of grain on the threshing floor.

Shocks: A number of sheaves of grain stacked upright in a field for drying, wheat, oats and corn are common shocks among Old Order Amish farms.

Millet: A field grass cultivated for its grain and hay.

Rape: Cultivated for fodder and for it seed, which yields a useful oil.

Winch: A hand powered hoisting machine having a drum around which a rope winds as the load is lifted.

Sorghum: An Old World grass widely cultivated as grain and forage and source of syrup.

Lye: The liquid obtained by leaching wood ashes making Potassium hydroxide.

Mennonitism: As lineal descendants of the Anabaptists, though small in numbers relatively, have nevertheless played a significant role in the religion and culture of the Netherlands for 400 years. Less numerous in other countries (Germany, Switzerland, Alsace), they have nonetheless made major contributions in agriculture (Palatinate, Vistula Daelta, Ukraine, Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Manitoba), and have been among the great colonizers in South Russia, the Prairie states and provinces of the United States and Canada, and more recently in Paraguay.

Martyr: One who is killed for his beliefs without resistance.

Martyrs Mirror: 1,582 pages accounting for the Christians who were condemned to death for their steadfast adherence to the beliefs of Anabaptism.

Sickle: an implement having a semicircular blade attached to a short handle, used for cutting grain or tall grass.

Cradle: A frame projecting above a scythe, used to catch grain as it is cut so that it can be laid flat.

Scythe: is an implement consisting of a ling, curved single-edged blade with a ling, bent handle, used for mowing or reaping.

Mulberry: A fruit tree with sweet purple berries.

Morgan: One of a breed of American saddle and trotting horses distinctive in its strong shoulders.

Peasant Revolt (1525)

Pacifist: Anabaptists have been Biblical pacifists through their entire history.

Schleitheim: capital of the district of the same name in the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen. The Anabaptist name Pletscher came from here. Richard Pletcher’s, founder of Amish Acres, great-great grandfather, Samuel Pletcher.

Synod: of Anabaptist leaders held in Schleitheim, February 24, 1527.

Sheeps nose: Old variety of apple grown in Amish Acres orchard.

School hack: Horse drawn school bus used to take neighboring children to the Weldy School one and one-half mile from Amish Acres. Purchased at auction from an Amish farmer. 8 mm film exists of this bus being used, complete with stop sign and stove in the middle.

Shunning: To avoid deliberately and especially consistently: shunned his neighbor.

B&O: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Came through the area linking Sandusky, Ohio and Chicago in 1874. It provided the impetus for the founding of the town of Nappanee.

Northwest Territory: Historical U.S. region extending from the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the Great Lakes.

Indiana: Became a state in 1816. The original state capital was in Coryodon. It was the 13th state admitted to the Union.

Elkhart County: Established in 1832.

Goshen County: seat of Elkhart County.

Black Swamp: Swamp extending across northwest Ohio that made migration directly to northern Indiana difficult. Often access through Canada and Michigan was easier.

Chief Five Medals: Pottowami Indian chief who lived along the Little Elkhart River near Baintertown in the south central part of Elkhart County. He made personal visits to both Presidents Washington and Jefferson. He received federal funds to assist in converting his tribe to agriculture and assimilation. Most of the funds were confiscated through graft before he returned each time. Government troops destroyed the village twice. He is buried near the site of the former village.

Father Sorin: Jesuit priest who founded the University of Notre Dame in 1852 to convert Pottowami Indian's to Catholicism.

Miami Indians: Forerunners of the Pottowami Indians in northern Indiana.

Erlenbach Switerland: Town where Jacob Ammann was born.

Fundamentalism: A Protestant movement characterized by a belief in the literal truth of the Bible.

Protestant: Christian belonging to a sect descending from those that seceded from the church of Rome at the time of the Reformation.

Monk: A member of a religious brotherhood living in a monastery and devoted to a discipline prescribed by his order.

Post and Beam Construction

  • Mortise: A rectangular cavity in a piece of wood, prepared to receive a tendon.
  • Tendon: is a projection on the end of a piece of wood shaped for insertion into a mortise. The technique used in construction of post and beam structures.
  • Posts: are upright.
  • Beams: are horizontal.
  • Perlins: are beams set at an angle parallel to the pitch of a roof to support its rafters.
  • Angle braces: are installed at the joints of posts and beams at a 45 degree angle to provide lateral support.

Zurich: Swiss capital that became the center of the Anabaptist wing of the Reformation.

Kaiserslatern: German city from which the Stahly family migrated to America.

Holland: Tolerant country where Anabaptism was most tolerated and permitted to grow.

Simon, Menno: became most well known Anabaptist and Mennoniteism began here. Holland Dutch priest who converted to Anabaptism. Mennonite is named for him.

Alsace: Region and former province of eastern France, between the Rhine and Vosges mountains.

Palatinate: Historical district and former state of southern Germany between Luxembourg and the Rhine.

Land barrons: Individual land owners at the end of the Middle Ages who wielded great power and provided protection to Amish and other refugees who provided farm labor in return.

Sect: A religious body that has separated from a larger body.

Cult: Obsessive devotion or veneration for a person, principle, or ideal

Bishop: The head of each Amish Church district, chosen by lot for life to emphasis the leadership of the common man.

Deacon: The official charged with the economic, emotional and social well being of the Amish congregation or district.

Barn door pants: Front flap buttoned pants similar to those worn by U.S. Navy personnel. Popular among Amish men.

Pennsylvania Dutch: A low German dialect spoken in remote parts of southern Germany today. The unwritten language of the Amish and Mennonite sects.

High German: Amish Church services are conducted in high German and bibles are printed in High German, few Amish can speak high German.

Old Order: As divisions have split original Anabaptist sects, the term Old Order is assigned to the remaining more conservative wing of the division.

Reformation: Movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church from worldly distractions including the selling of indulgences to assist in paying for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the cathedral at Worms.

Avoidance: Isolation and social avoidance of those who have fallen from the Amish Church by breaking its sanctions.

Switzerland: Republic of west central Europe. Capital Bern, population nearly 7 million.

Worms: City of s central west Germany, on the Rhine.

State church: The Roman Catholic Church became the official state religion of most medieval states. Government persecution of those of other beliefs was common.

Persecution: The intentional harassment of those whose religious views differed from the state church. It took many forms including jail sentences, mutilation, confiscation and denial of citizen's rights.

Martyrdom: Dying at the hands of persecutors because of faith without resistance.

Ausbund: The original Anabaptist hymnal still used today in Amish Church services. It has changed little, has no music and is chanted following a leader without harmony. Hymns include many stories of martyrdom.

Western Church: Defined as the western half of the Holy Roman Empire after the split that set up the eastern empire in Constantinoble. The eastern church is Greek speaking.

Indulgences: The remission of punishment still due for a sin that has been sacramentally absolved (Roman Catholic Church).

Holy See: The court, office, or jurisdiction of the pope.

Good works: Luther held that good works alone cannot assure heaven to believers, only faith can accomplish salvation.

Faith: Beliefs that cannot be proven by science or observation.

Protestant: The term applied to those who, through the Reformation withdrew from the Roman Catholic Church to establish other denominations.

Ecumenical: Pertaining to the worldwide Christian Church.

Gross Daadi Haus: German name give to the second house located on a typical Amish farm to house the retired members of the family.

Galvanized: To coat iron or steel with rust-resistant zinc. Used to produce roofing, buckets, troughs and other metal containers.

Louvers: Refers to barn louvers that provided ventilation to the hay and straw mows of barns built in the earlier times. The ventilation was expected to prevent fire from the internal combustion of newly mown hay. Observation proved that costly louvers were of little help and were discontinued.

Jacobian: The popular rural gothic style of houses built by non-Amish settlers to the area. Distinctive features include highly detailed fretwork and turned posts surrounding the house with porches.

Mow: Large sections of barns designed to hold loose cut hay and straw in dry conditions to be used for feed and bedding in the stables below.

Stables: Sections of barns divided often for single animals with feed troughs.

Private schools: Schools financed and operated by non-government entities without the use of tax dollars. Amish private school are now prevalent in Indiana.

Doctrine: The set of beliefs that make up the distinctive religious practices of a sect or denomination.

Charter: The mission of a religious group.

Christian: One who believes that Jesus Christ is the son of God and came to earth to sacrifice himself for man's sins and open the gates of heaven to the faithful.

Pagan: Pre-Christian beliefs and religions, usually based on the worship of nature or godheads.

Eastern Church: The Greek Orthodox wing of the Roman Catholic Church.

Reaper: The horse drawn implement that cut wheat and oats from the field at ground level and laid the cut stalks to be gathered into sheaves and shocks in preparation for threshing.

Binder: Modern reaper with the ability to gather the stalks of grain and tie them, originally with wire and later binder twine, into sheaves, to be later shocked by hand in the field to dry.

Baler: Modern implement that cuts hay and trims it into a neatly tied bale with two strands of twine. The bale is trimmed on the sides with knives that are built into the baler.

Mud boat: A wagon type bed attached to two wide, shallow runners for horses to pull through the wet spring woods to gather maple sap from the trees

Lean-to: A building built by attaching rafters to an existing building creating a single sloped addition.

Dehydrate: Preserve by removing water from food.

Cistern: An underground tank for storing rain water, the original house has one under the wash house floor, the main house has one built into the cellar.

Flypaper: A sticky coated paper, usually pulled in a spiral ribbon from its container and attached to a ceiling to draw flys to it where they are caught.

Grain box: High sided wagon box with removable rear door.

Undercarriage: Supporting framework of a buggy or wagon including wheels and fifth wheel.

Fifth wheel: A horizontal wheel or segment of a wheel that consists of two parts rotation on each other above the fore axle of a carriage and that forms support to prevent tipping.

Bobsled: A short sled usually used as one of a pair joined by a coupling.

Ice sled: Small sled used to carry cubes of ice cut from a frozen pond across the pond to the icehouse or wagon.

Buck saw: A saw set in a usually H-shaped frame that is used for sawing wood for burning purposes.

Buckboard: A four wheeled wagon with a springy platform.

Siphon: A tube bent to form two legs of unequal length by which a liquid can be transferred to a lower level over an intermediate elevation by the pressure of the atmosphere, causing a continuos flow.

Church bench wagon: A galvanized steel covered wagon filled with folding benches, china, silver and other equipment required to hold church in a different house each two weeks.

Split rails: A fence rail split from a log with the use of wedges and sledge hammer.

Wedge: A triangular shaped tool made in varying lengths and angles for splitting wood.

Sitting drill press: A narrow wooded seat with an upright two-handed two inch drill bit attached. It is used by sitting on the press on the top of a hewn timber to drill a vertical hole into the timber.

Sauerkraut: Cabbage cut fine and fermented in a brine made of its own juice with salt.

Pickled: Preserved in or cured with pickle.

Deep well: Amish Acres well is a two inch combination of pipes driven eighty feet into the ground. The leading edge of the pipe has a screen to filter the water pumped to the surface through it.

Leathers: Leather washers used in well pumps to provide the seal required to create a vacuum to draw water.

Quilt frame: An adjustable wooded frame used to stretch both sides of a quilt and its filling so that hand stitching can be sewn in to complete the quilt.

Fainting couch: A couch with a bustle at one end used for resting primarily for those prone to fainting.

Rope bed: A bed head and foot board connected with rails with wooded pegs around which a rope "spring" is stretched. A tick of straw or feathers completes the bed.

Straw tick: A mattress sack sewn on three sides stuffed with straw and tied shut to provide a soft sleeping surface.

Feather tick: A mattress sack sewn on three sides stuffed with feathers and down from fowl and tied shut to provide a soft sleeping surface.

Medicine cabinet: Set into the living room wall of the main house to keep medicine and chemicals away from food storage in the kitchen.

Pitcher pump: A water pump that is primed by pouring water into the top of the pump.

Prime: Creating the vacuum required to draw water from a well.

Ice box: An insulated wooden box with a galvanized tin interior to keep cut ice cold.

Crockery: Ceramic ware made of slightly porous opaque clay fired at low heat.

Pottery: Earthenware as distinguished on the one hand from porcelain and stoneware and on the other from brick and tile.

Historic: Amish Acres is historic in that the first Amish to settle in Indiana were involved in pioneering the farm.

Historical: Relating to or having the character of history.

Sociological: The science of society, social institutions, and social relationships.

Mores: The fixed morally binding customs of of a particular group.

Pike poles: Sixteen foot long wooden poles with heavy spikes attached to the top, used in groups by men on both sides of a barn's band during it raising.

Threshing machine: A machine for separating grain crops into grain or seed and straw.

Corn crib: A loosely constructed container in which to store corn, permitting ventilation to prevent rot and raised off of the ground to discourage rodents.

Dutch doors: A swinging door divided into a top and bottom section used in stable doors so that the upper section can be opened for ventilation without opening the bottom section to keep animals inside the stable.

Bank barn: A barn constructed with two floors on flat land. The second floor is accessible from an artificial bank of earth making a ramp to its entrance, usually sided with field stone.

Downspouts: Piping used to carry rain water collected in gutters or eves troughs to a drain or away from a building's foundation.

Eves troughs: Originally made of two boards nailed together to form a "V", pitched on the inside to prevent leaking and tilted toward the lower end of the property to collect water shedding from pitched roofs, now usually made of galvanized metal in a number of shapes and attached to the roof edge in several accepted methods.

Snow jacks: Upright spikes installed on steeply pitcher roofs to prevent snow from cascading down across doors as it begins to melt.

Bevel siding: Triangular shaped siding that is installed with one board overlapping the board below.

Zinc paint: Original paint used to paint barns and houses. Red was the least expensive color to produced, now banned because of inherent health hazards..

Double hung windows: A window made from two sash. The lower sash can be raised for ventilation, bypassing the fixed upper sash. Sash weights attached to rope across a pulley balance the opened sash.

Lead paint: A heavy soft malleable ductile plastic but inelastic bluish white metallic element, formerly used in the manufacture of paint, now banned from such use.

Cure: To prepare by chemical or physical processing for keeping and later use.

Pickle: A brine or vinegar solution in which foods are preserved.

Preserve: To keep from decomposition, to can, pickle, smoke or similarly prepare for future use.

Amish buggy: Single to two seat buggies built for Amish transportation. Early models used roller curtains to cover openings, new models use sliding doors. Each Amish district may adjust the design of the buggy slightly to make it distinctive to its settlement. In Indiana buggies are black, Ohio and Pennsylvania are gray. Several isolated settlements in Pennsylvania and New York drive white and yellow buggies. A new buggy built in a buggy shop costs several thousand dollars.

Hay wagon: Wide bedded wagon that overhangs the undercarriage with short sides used to gather loose hay in the field and transport it to the barn's mow where it is transferred with the use of slings or forks.

Rig: A buggy with its horse.

Graft: To propagate a plant or tree by inserting a stem of one plant into another and permitting them to grow together.

Cupola: A small structure built on top of a roof.

Overshoot: The section of a bank barn that overhangs on one side to provide protection from the elements for the stable doors.

Grainery: A storehouse for threshed grain.

Adz: A tool used in hewing.

Hew: To square logs with heavy cutting blows.

Chisel: A metal tool with a cutting edge at the end of a blade used in dressing, shaping, or working a solid material.

Mallet: A tool with a large head for driving another tool or for striking a surface without marring it.

Lane: A narrow passage way between fences or hedges.

Bar across stable: A 4" x 4" timber embedded into the lower half of a Dutch door frame in horse stables that can be locked at night to prevent horse thieves from riding of with the farm's draft and driving horses.

Section: One square mile in area forming one of the 36 subdivisions of a township.

Township: A division of territory in surveys of U.S. Public land containing 36 sections.

Acre: 160 square rods, 43,560 square feet.

Rod: 16.5 feet.

Bushel: Four pecks.

Peck: Two gallons.

Gallon: Four quarts.

Quart: Two pints.

Pint: Four gills.

Gill: Five fluid ounces.

Pound: Twelve ounces.

Ton: Two thousand pounds.

Pound: Twelve ounces.

Hands high: Varying from two and one half to four inches.

Canning: Preserve by sealing in airtight cans or jars.

Ball jar: Brand name of glass jars made in Muncie, Indiana. Ball State University is named for the Ball family.

Cane: Any of a number of reedy grasses, often interwoven to make chair seats.

Canada goose: The common wild goose of North America, often mispronounced "Canadian."

Kerosene: A flammable hydrocarbon oil usually obtained by distillation of petroleum and used for a fuel.

Bottled gas: Propane gas used for gas lamps in most Amish houses.

Propane gas: A heavy flammable gaseous paraffin hydrocarbon found in crude petroleum and natural gas and used specially as fuel and in chemical synthesis.

Commons: The grassy area upon which the restaurant and log houses face.

Amtrak National Passenger Rail System:Amtrak stops in Nappanee twice a day between Chicago's Union Station and Pittsburgh's XX station.

Pennsylvania Dutch: A dialect of High German spoken by Amish and other Anabaptist sects.

High German: The literary and official language of Germany.

Germanic: A branch of the Indo-European language family containing English, German, Dutch Africans, Flemish, Frisian, Gothic and the Scandinavian languages.

Low German: Dialect similar to Pennsylvania Dutch still spoken in rural parts of Germany.

Dialect: A regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language of which no one variety is considered as standard.

Genealogy: An account of the descent of a person, family, or group from an ancestor.

Gee: Used as a direction to turn to the right.

Haw: Used as a direction to turn to the left.

Hobble: To fasten together the legs of a horse to prevent straying.

Bunghole: A hole in the cider mill tray for emptying cider into a cask.

Bung: The stopper in the bunghole of the cider mill tray.

Feed bunks: A feed trough for cattle and horses.

Burlap: A coarse heavy plain-woven fabric of jute or hemp used for bagging grain.

Hay sling: Rope, track, car and pulley operates used to lift loose hay and straw from wagons and drop it into the mows at different places along the track.

Hay fork: Iron forks that replaced earlier slings to hoist loads of hay and straw.

Hay car: Double wheeled iron casing that carries pulleys and stops to manage the distribution of hay and straw through a series of ropes.

Farrier: Horseshoer who clads horses hooves for work on hard surfaces. Shoes are shaped by heating and bending through the use of anvil and hammer to fit each trimmed foot of the horse being shod. The fitted show is nailed through the outer edge of the hoof and bent over the top of the hoof before being trimmed and filed smooth.

Wheelright: A maker of wheels involving the use of wooden hubs, spokes and rims. Iron rims are often heated and shrunk through cooling to extend the use of both buggy and wagon wheels.

Blacksmith: An artisan who created useful tools and parts using iron through the process of heating, bending, shaping, using an anvil, hammers, tongs and other specialized tools.

Anvil: A heavy block of iron with a smooth, flat top on which metals are shaped by hammering. The traditional anvil includes a horn at one end that allows shaping to be accomplished.

Bellows: An apparatus for producing a strong current of air to increase the draft to a fire to make it burn hotter, as in a blacksmith's bellows.

Distillery: A building covering a boiler and gathering tanks where fresh cut mint is brought to be distilled through the use of steam that captures the inherent oils from the leaves and then separates the oil from the water. Peppermint and spearmint were major crops in the early part of the century. Mint does best grown in very mucky soil. Today the industry is dominated by the northwest United States.

Weave: To make fabric by interweaving the warp (vertical strands) and weft or woof (horizontal strands) threads with the assistance of a loom, a machine that interweaves thread or yarn at right angles.

Belgian horses: A breed of buckskin colored draft horses with white tails and manes. American Amish farmers are credited with saving the Belgian horse from extinction during World War II. The mainstay of World War I's military machine, mechanized equipment made the breed obsolete in the second world conflict.

Incubator: A small container with kerosene stove attached to provide heat to incubate eggs to hatching.

Reservoir: Water receptor and container used inconjunction with eves trough and down spouts.

Shafts: The wooded poles to which a horse is harnessed to provide the power to pull a buggy.

Single trees: Used in conjunction with the tugs of a horse.

Doubletree: A cross bar on a wagon or buggy to which two two whiffletrees are attached for harnessing tow animals abreast.

Whiffletrees: are the pivoted horizontal crossbar to which the harness traces of a draft animal are attached.

are the side straps connecting a harnessed draft animal to the vehicle it is pulling.

Threshing: The process of separating grain from its stalk and chaff after harvesting. Whether by hand, threshing machine, combine or winnowing machine,

Flail: A manual threshing device consisting of a long wooden handle and a shorter, free-swinging stick attached to its end, usually with leather thongs.

Winnowing pan: To separate the chaff from grain by means of a current of air, either from natural sources or mechanical sources.

Separator: A machine used to separate cream from raw milk by the use of centrifugal force.

Line shaft: Series of pulleys and leather belts used to transfer and distribute power from its source to numerous tools at different speeds by adjusting the size of the various pulleys.

Steam engine: Invented by Robert Fulton by heating wood or coal in a boiler the steam is captured and the power provided by its expansion is transferred to engines.

Oil pull: An internal combustion engine fueled by oil rather than gasoline. A popular line of farm tractors were manufactured in LaPorte, Indiana, by Rumley.

Bee hives: A structure for housing honeybees.

Fowl: The widely domesticated chicken, primarily for human consumption of eggs or meat.

Poultry: Domestic fowls, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese, raised for flesh or eggs.

Bovine: Pertaining to or resembling an ox, cow or other animal of the genus Bos.

Collar: The cushioned part of a harness that presses against the shoulders of a draft animal.

Draft animal: Animals used for drawing the heavy loads required to plough, cultivate, harvest and move farm produce. Oxen, horses, mules have all been trained to be draft animals.

Mule: A sterile hybrid of a male donkey and female horse usually bred for draft purposes.

Tugs: The parts of a horse's harness used to pull against.

Reins A long , narrow leather strap attached to the bit of a bridle and used by the driver to control a horse or other animal.

Railroad bed: The gravel bed built up to provide a level surface for railroad ties and tracks to be installed in straight lines and sweeping curves.

Barbed wire: Twisted strands of wire with barbs at regular intervals. Made the use of several strands of barbed wire serve the same purpose of containing animals as multiple smooth wire fences.

Patricarical: The male leader of a family or tribe.

Mutual aid: An insurance system in which the insured members of a group pay specified amounts into a common fund from which members are entitled to indemnification in case of loss.

Separation: A division among like thinking people who develop irreconcilable differences.

Avoidance: The act of avoidance or shunning.

Flax: Several plants having blue flowers, seeds that yield linseed oil, and slender stems from which a fine, light-colored textile fiber is obtained.

Molasses: Any of various thick syrups produced in refining sugar.

Apple butter: Thick orange jam made by boiling apple cider and mashed apples in a copper kettle.

Pulp: A mass of pressed fruit or vegetable matter.

Fertilizer: Any of a large number of natural and synthetic materials, including manure and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds, spread on or worked into soil to increase its fertility.

Tribe: Various systems of social organizations comprising several local villages, bands, districts, lineage's, or other groups and sharing a common ancestry, language, culture and name.

Communal: Marked by a collective ownership and control of goods and property.

Pacifists: Opposition to war or violence as a means of resolving disputes, such opposition demonstrated by refusal to participate in military action.

Conscientious objector: One who on the basis of religious and moral principles refuses to bear arms or participate in military service.

Alternative service: In lieu of military service, providing peaceful service in hospitals and other non-combat situations.

Pot belly stove: A short rounded stove in which wood or coal is burned.

Isinglass: A transparent, almost pure gelatin prepared from the air bladder of certain fishes, as the sturgeon.

Oral tradition: Historical information passed from one generation to another by way of storytelling.

Folk medicine: Traditional medicine that is practiced by people who are without access to processional medical services and that usually involves the use of natural remedies, as herbs or vegetable substances.

Peasant: The class comprising o small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers, and laborers on the land where these constitute the main labor force in agriculture.

Watershed: A ridge of high land dividing two areas that are drained by different river systems. The B&O (now CSX) Railroad is constructed on a water shed across northern Indiana. Water to its south goes through the Kankee River system to the Mississippi and water to its north goes to the Great Lakes through the St. Joseph River system.

Slate: A fine-grained metamorphic rock that splits into thin, smooth-surfaced layers. Usable for roofing material.

Zwingli, Hydreich: Luther's counterpart in Zurich, Switzerland